Making Paper from Woodchips


Do you have any paper in your bag? It may seem like a silly question but do you know how to make paper? What is paper made of? Right! And how is about ‘wood chipping’? Have you ever heard about it? Well, wood chipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees.

First of all, the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Hmm … at this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into the pulp by chemicals and heat. Oh, I almost forgot, the pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Finally, the pulp is rolled out to make paper.

Considering the complexity of making paper, let’s appreciate any paper on our hands. Use it more effectively. Thank you for listening. Bye.

The Controversy of Harnessing Solar Energy


We often hear about solar cars, solar heating, and solar batteries. But will solar energy ever be a major source of energy for society?

Solar energy is cheaper than other fossil fuels because we can get an abundant source from the sun. in sunny desert area, 50% of the sun’s radiation that reach the ground could be used to produce electricity for businesses and industry and to provide heat, light, and hot water for homes. Experimental solar ponds can also produce hot water to drive generators.

Unfortunately, we can’t yet power our homes entirely on sunlight. Solar energy can only be used effectively in bright light. Its greatest potential therefore is in hot countries that have clear skies for most of the year. But, unfortunately most houses are not in the sunniest parts of the world. Moreover, in order to harness solar power solar cells are needed to convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are very cheap to run, but relatively expensive to buy and many people can’t afford them.

Needless to say, solar energy is useful and non-pollution source of energy. Unfortunately, solar cells, the main to harness the sun’s energy are still very expensive.

The Advantages and the Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy is commonly offered as an alternative to overcome the crisis of energy. The debate of whether the use of nuclear energy is an appropriate choice has not come to an end. Some people agree with the utilization of it because of its benefits. Some others, however, disagree because of its risks to the environment.

Those who agree with the operation of nuclear reactors usually argue that nuclear energy is the only feasible choice to answer the ever – increasing energy needs. In their opinion, the other sources of energy: oil, coal, and liquid natural gas are not renewable and safe, while nuclear energy can be sustainable when produced in a safe way.

However, people who disagree with the use of nuclear energy point out that the waste of nuclear products can completely destroy the environment and human lives. A meltdown in reactor, for example, usually results in the contamination of the surroundings soil and water. Take for example, the blow up of the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Russia twenty years ago. The serious contamination imperiled people and the environment severely.

It is obvious that nuclear energy should be avoided because it really endanger the environment but what about a less polluted energy instead of nuclear energy? Are there any alternative energy to overcome the crisis of energy?