12-02-06: Discussion Text.

Halo everybody.

Do you ever discuss??? Huh, I’m sure my friends must be familiar with the discussion, and often do it. We often discuss to find a solution of a problem faced. In the discussion, of course there are pros and cons. Because the discussion is actually to get consensus or agreement from others. We do discussion not only in the world of education, but we also often discuss for small things like asking for opinions. Well, actually one of English genre of text that is Discussion Text brings the same discourse as when we discuss something.

When we discuss about a matter, of course in our discussion there are various arguments / opinions. Likewise in Discussion Text, this text has two different opinions; one, agreeable opinion and, two, disagreeable opinions. Therefore we must have a broad view of a problem if we want to make a discussion text.

For more details, let’s one by one discuss what we should understand in studying Discussion Text.

Definition of Discussion Text

Discussion is a process of finding common ground between two different thoughts, views or opinions. And discussion text can be defined :

Discussion text is a text which presents a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text. In other word, Discussion is a kind of genre used to present (at least) two points of view about an issue.

General structure of Discussion Text

– Issue : stating the issue which is to discussed

– Argument pro : presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue

– Argument cons : presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point

– Conclusion / recommendation : stating the writer’ recommendation of the discourse

Purpose of Discussion text

– To present two points of view about issue or problem.

– To present arguments from differing points of view about issue or problem..

Language feature of Discussion text

– Introducing category or generic participant

– Using thinking verb; feel, hope, believe, etc

– Using contrast conjunction; however, on the other hand, but, in other side, although, etc

– Using modalities; must, should, could, may, etc

– Using adverbial of manner; deliberately, hopefully, etc

– Simple present

Examples of Discussion text

Nuclear Energy : Advantage Or Disadvantage

Nuclear energy is commonly offered as an alternative to overcome the crisis of energy. The debate whether the use of nuclear energy is an appropriate choice or not, has not come to an end. Some people agree with the utilization of it because of its benefits. Some others, however, disagree because of its risks to the environment.

Those who agree with the operation of nuclear reactors usually argue that nuclear energy is the only feasible choice to answer the ever – increasing energy needs. In their opinion, the other sources of energy: oil, coal, and liquid natural gas are not renewable and safe, while nuclear energy can be sustainable when produced in a safe way.

However, people who disagree with the use of nuclear energy point out that the waste of nuclear products can completely destroy the environment and human lives. A meltdown in reactor, for example, usually results in the contamination of the surroundings soil and water. Take for example, the blow up of the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Russia twenty years ago. The serious contamination imperiled people and the environment severely.

It is obvious that nuclear energy should be avoided because it really endangers the environment but what about a less polluted energy instead of nuclear energy. Is there any alternative energy to overcome the crisis of energy? In my opinion, nuclear energy is the best choice to overcome the crisis of energy. However, government should make sure that nuclear reactor’s construction and maintains are safe.

National Exam: Pro and Contra?

National exam becomes the hot topic in most of discussions among students, teachers, and parents. Some people believe that national exam is not necessary for students as a requirement to be able graduate from a school. In other hand, other people see national exam as an important indicator to know whether students have mastered all school materials or not. The debate among society about national examination goes on until now.

For people who agree, national exam is necessary for students as a requirement to graduate from a school. People who support the national exam explain that the quality of the Indonesia education will drop without the national exam, so they try to defend the current system. They also think that national examination can motivate students to study harder.

However there are people who disagree with the opinion. Those who against this national exam kept in school education say that it doesn’t need the national exams because the quality of education does not just depend on the national exam. Further, the national exam only measures a small portion of students’ competence in specific subjects, and does not measure students’ competences throughout the semester.

In conclusion, national examination can still be useful as an instrument to evaluate or detect the level of students’ cognitive competence in several subjects, on a national scale. However, it is not fair if only national exam score that judge whether students pass or not. Government should make a regulation that national exam is not the only requirement for students to graduate. There should be other requirements added such as students’ daily score, behavior, and achievement.

Pro and con of Computers for Students

Do you know that most schools and colleges strongly recommend students to have computers to help them achieve better results of learning. With computer connected to Internet, students can learn English online. They can make reports easily by using word processing software. They can play game to get of boredom. However, a computer can also give negative impacts for a student.

One thing that makes a computer useful is that students can use it to finish some assignments from schools. By connecting to Internet, they can easily surf and find any materials related to their lessons and assignments. They have unlimited resources from all over the worlds. Online libraries are open. A lot of book are free to download and read online. Finding friends from related field of study is not difficult anymore. They can work together to boost their best achievement. What more benefit is they can do all of that just by sitting on the a chair of their rooms. What amazing world it is, isn’t?

Although a computer has many benefits, it should be considered deeply. A computer certainly does not promote students to do and move more. A computes make students have less physical activities. Even not few of them forget to have lunch while they are playing certain game. They just sit in front of monitors. They are caught up in the mystique of the smart machines. In short, students who usually work with computers tend to have a few physical activities and exercises.

So what should students do? Should they avoid using computers? Of course “No”. Computer will make even greater benefits if physical activities are also promoted to done by the students.

The Impact of the Internet for Students

Internet has helped many people in all elements of life that the internet has contributed fully in social life. With internet, we can do anything, both the positive and negative things. As a medium of communication, internet can be used to communicate with other users worldwide.

Internet presence provides positive benefits for the world of information, but it also has many negative influences. Many students gain knowledge with the help of internet. In fact, school assignments are now noticeably easier to find on the internet. It is undeniable that internet gives effect to students. There is a positive effect, but there is also a negative influence of internet. It is just like a coin with two sides, depending on how we deal with it.

Many positive benefits that can be obtained by students from the internet if it is used wisely. However, there are also negative effects caused by internet. Here are some of the negative influences of the internet. Some news, both television and newspapers spread their child abduction or runaway cases of minors who are started from friendship or social networking sites on the internet. The nature of a child who easily trusts anyone allows that to happen.

Pornography is the negative influence of other internet. Not only adults who visit forbidden sites, but many students are considered frequent visitors to sites that contain pornographic images or stories. This of course is a very unfortunate situation. Addiction to online games that hit the students is also a negative influence of the internet. Addiction and dependency can make the students run out of time and energy to play. As a result, students’ achievement will decrease.

To counteract the negative effects of internet on the students, there are some things that must be done. One of them is parents have to always accompany their children when they’re accessing the internet. This is to ensure that children have access to the right site. Do not let children engrossed in playing internet, while the parents do not know the whereabouts of the children. If the internet facility is available at home, place the facility in a shared room. This is to facilitate parents supervising the children. If you have to use the facilities at the internet cafe, help the children to choose the “healthy” cafe. It would be wise, if you know the owner and the clerk there. This is to make it easier to supervise the children. The last, give the children a good understanding about the positive and negative effects of the Internet for them. Thus, you are already complete with castle defense.

It is hoped all parties, including parents, teachers, government and students jointly prevent negative impacts arising from the internet. The government is expected to block sites that are not good. Parents are also expected to pay more attention to their children so that children can continue to be monitored and not fall into things that are not good.

Sumber: http://britishcourse.com/discussion-text-definition-generic-structures-purposes-language-features.php

 

11-02-05: Narrative Text

Pengertian Narrative Text

Sebelum membahas tentang tujuan dan ciri-ciri narrative text dan contohnya, mari kita pahami dulu apa itu pengertian narrative text. Jika merujuk pada wikipedia, maka yang dimaksud dengan narrative text adalah: “a narrative (or story) is any report of connected events, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, and/or in a sequence of (moving) pictures”. Atau jika diterjemahkan, maka yang dimaksud dengan Narrative text adalah jenis genre yang rangkaian peristiwa atau ceritanya dari waktu ke waktu dan dijabarkan dengan urutan awal, tengah dan akhir. Jadi harus kronologis, maksudnya kronologis itu diceritakan secara runtut dan tidak boleh loncat-loncat.

Tujuan Narrative Text

Tujuan dasar dari text narasi adalah untuk menghibur dan menarik minat pembaca dengan menyajikan cerita atau peristiwa yang memiliki masalah yang menimbulkan konflik dan pada akhir cerita ada resolusinya atau akhir yang bahagia atau bahkan menyedihkan. Sebenarnya teks narrative tidak hanya terbatas pada cerita yang berbau mistis, fiksi, legenda, dongeng ataupun fabel saja, tapi cerita lain yang berbentuk petualangan, misteri dan semua bentuk cerita. Intinya, narrative text adalah tentang cerita. Tapi dalam pelajaran di sekolah, teks yang bergenre naratif biasanya hanya digunakan untuk menunjukkan cerita fiksi seperti dongeng ataupun legenda saja.

Jika dilihat dari jenisnya, maka narrative text yang sering dimaksudkan oleh bapak ibu guru adalah termasuk kategori Narasi Sugestif, yaitu teks yang tujuannya agar pembaca mendapatkan hikmah dari sebuah cerita.

Struktur Umum

Orientasi                : set adegan dan memperkenalkan para peserta.

Komplikasi            : krisis, konflik, atau masalah muncul.

Resolusi                 : krisis atau masalah tersebut teratasi, untuk lebih baik atau lebih buruk.

Re-Orientasi          : Opsional (tidak harus).

Ciri-ciri Redaksi Narrative Text

Jika kamu mendapat tugas untuk membuat sebuah tulisan dengan genre narrative text, maka ciri-ciri di bawah ini bisa dijadikan pedoman:

  • Fokus pada satu tokoh atau pelaku dan biasanya individual sehingga biasanya menggunakan kata ganti seperti “I, we, she, he”.
  • Paling sering menggunakan past tense baik itu simple past tense, past continuous, maupun bentuk past tense lainnya.
  • Terkadang menggunakan dialog untuk mengajak pembaca berimajinasi sehingga ceritanya terlihat lebih jelas dan nyata.
  • Karena berurutan (kronologis), maka biasanya juga menggunakan kata sambung (conjunction) agar cerita terlihat runtut atau urut.

Contoh Narrative Text dan Penjelasannya.

Cinderella.

Once upon a time, there was a beautiful young girl named Cinderella. He lived with his step mother and two sisters. They were arrogant and bad tempered. They treated Cinderella very badly. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest job in the house, such as scrubbing the floor, cleaning the pot and pan and preparing food for the family. Her step sisters, on the other hand, did not work on the house. Their mother gave them many pretty dresses to wear.

One day, a king invited all girls in his kingdom to attend a ball in his palace. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Cinderella could not stop crying after they left.

“Why are you crying, Cinderella?” the voice asked.

She looked up and saw a fairy standing beside her. Then Cinderella told her why she was crying. Well the fairy said, “you’ve been such a cheerful, hardworking, uncomplaining girl that I will see that you go to the ball.” The fairy turned a pumpkin into a coach and mice into a smooth two coach man and footman then tapped Cinderella’s dress with her wand, and it became a beautiful ball gown.

Then he gave her a pair of pretty glass shoes. Now, Cinderella, she said, “you have to leave the ball before midnight”. Then he drove away a wonderful coach. Cinderella had a marvelous time either. She danced again and again with the prince. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve, she ran toward the door as fast as he could do. In her hurry, one of her glass shoes left behind.

A few days later, the prince declared that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass shoe. Cinderella’s stepsisters tried on it but it was too small for them, no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. In the end, the king’s page let Cinderella try the shoe. She stretched his legs and slipped the shoe on the page. It fitted perfectly. Finally, she was ushered into a magnificent palace and height. The prince were glad to see her again. They married and lived happily ever after.

Penjelasan:

  • Paragraf pertama berisi Orientation, yaitu pengenalan tokoh-tokoh yang ada pada dongeng Cinderella.
  • Paragraf kedua berisi Complication, yaitu masalah muncul ketika Cinderella tidak boleh pergi ke pesta dansa (ball).
  • Paragraf ketiga berisi Resolution, yaitu masalah terpecahkan ketika seorang peri menolongnya.
  • Paragraf terakhir, berisi Re-Orientation, yaitu akhir cerita yang bahagia dimana akhirnya Cinderella menikah dengan pangeran.

Pengertian, Tujuan, Ciri Narrative Text dan Contohnya

 

11-01-08: Explanation Text; Definition, Purposes, Generic Structures, Language Features

Kamu pernah menjelaskan sesuatu kepada teman kamu? Misalnya teman kamu bertanya, gimana sih proses terjadinya hujan, atau gimana sih proses diciptakannya manusia. Kemudian kamu menjelaskan kepada teman kamu tentang itu. Penjelasan kamu itu namanya Explanation Text.

Untuk lebih jelasnya silahkan baca referensi tentang Explanation Text dibawah ini.

Definition of Explanation Text

Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.

Generic Structure of Explanation Text

  • General statement.

Stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.

  • Sequenced explanation.

Stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.

The Characteristics / Language Feature of Explanation Text:

  • Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc
  • Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc
  • Using passive voice pattern
  • Using simple present tense

Example

How does Rain Happen?

Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.

The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle involves the sun heating the Earth’s surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The water vapor rises into the Earth’s atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and condenses into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation which can be in the form of rain or snow.

However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporates while falling through dry air. This is called Virgo, a phenomenon which is often seen in hot, dry desert regions.

How chocolate is made

How a cancer is formed

Tsunami

Earthquake

Flood

Etc.

http://britishcourse.com/explanation-text-definition-purposes-generic-structures-language-features.php