Life Cycle of the Malaria Parasite


Malaria is an infectious disease caused by a one celled parasite known as Plasmodium. The parasite is transmitted to humans by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. The plasmodium parasite spends its life cycle partly in humans and partly in mosquitoes.

Mosquito infected with the malaria parasite bites human, passing cells called sporozoites into the human’s bloodstream.

Sporozoites travel to the liver. Each sporozoite undergoes sexual reproduction, in which its nucleus splits to form two new cells, called merozoites.

Merozoites enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells.

In red blood cells, merozoites grow and divide to produce more merozoites, eventually causing the red blood cells to rupture. Some of the newly released merozoites go on to infect other red blood cells.

Some merozoites develop into sex cells known as male and female gametocytes.

Another mosquito bites the infected human, ingesting the gametocytes.

In the mosquito’s stomach, the gametocytes mature. Male and female gametocytes undergo sexual reproduction, uniting to form a zygote. The zygote multiplies to form sporozoites, which travel to the mosquito’s salivary glands.

If this mosquito bites another human, the cycle begins again.

Human Respiratory System


Do you know what helps your body get oxygen from the air? Right! It’s the respiratory system. Can you tell me the most important organs in the respiratory system? Yes, your nose, mouth, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm.

The respiratory system, in anatomy and physiology, are organs that deliver oxygen to the circulatory system for transport to all the body cells. The respiratory and circulatory system work together to deliver oxygen to cells and remove carbon dioxide in a two phase process called respiration.

The first phase of respiration begins with breathing in or inhalation. This inhalation brings air from outside the body into the lungs. Oxygen in the air moves from the lungs through blood vessels to the heart, which pumps the oxygen-rich blood to all parts of the body. Oxygen then moves from the blood-stream into the cells, which completes the first phase of respiration. In the cells, oxygen is used in a separate energy-producing process called cellular respiration, which produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct.

The second phase of respiration begins with the movement of carbon dioxide from the cells to the bloodstream. The bloodstream carries carbon dioxide to the heart, which pumps the carbon dioxide-laden blood to the lungs.

In the lungs, breathing out or exhalation removes carbon dioxide from the body, thus completing the respiration cycle. Do you understand so far? (the bell ring) Well, sorry. I guess time is up for today. So, see you tomorrow. Bye.

How Photosynthesis Works


Photosynthesis is very complex process, and for the sake of convenience and ease of understanding, plant biologists divide it into two stages.

In the first stage, i.e. the light-dependent reaction, the chloroplast traps light and converts it into chemical energy contained in nicotine-amide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), two molecules used in the second stage of photosynthesis.

In the second stage, called the light dependent reaction (formerly called the dark reaction), NADPH provides the hydrogen atoms that helps form glucose, and ATP provides the energy for this and other reactions used to synthesize glucose.

These two stages reflect the literal meaning of the term photosynthesis, to build with light energy.