11-02-05: Narrative Text

Pengertian Narrative Text

Sebelum membahas tentang tujuan dan ciri-ciri narrative text dan contohnya, mari kita pahami dulu apa itu pengertian narrative text. Jika merujuk pada wikipedia, maka yang dimaksud dengan narrative text adalah: “a narrative (or story) is any report of connected events, presented in a sequence of written or spoken words, and/or in a sequence of (moving) pictures”. Atau jika diterjemahkan, maka yang dimaksud dengan Narrative text adalah jenis genre yang rangkaian peristiwa atau ceritanya dari waktu ke waktu dan dijabarkan dengan urutan awal, tengah dan akhir. Jadi harus kronologis, maksudnya kronologis itu diceritakan secara runtut dan tidak boleh loncat-loncat.

Tujuan Narrative Text

Tujuan dasar dari text narasi adalah untuk menghibur dan menarik minat pembaca dengan menyajikan cerita atau peristiwa yang memiliki masalah yang menimbulkan konflik dan pada akhir cerita ada resolusinya atau akhir yang bahagia atau bahkan menyedihkan. Sebenarnya teks narrative tidak hanya terbatas pada cerita yang berbau mistis, fiksi, legenda, dongeng ataupun fabel saja, tapi cerita lain yang berbentuk petualangan, misteri dan semua bentuk cerita. Intinya, narrative text adalah tentang cerita. Tapi dalam pelajaran di sekolah, teks yang bergenre naratif biasanya hanya digunakan untuk menunjukkan cerita fiksi seperti dongeng ataupun legenda saja.

Jika dilihat dari jenisnya, maka narrative text yang sering dimaksudkan oleh bapak ibu guru adalah termasuk kategori Narasi Sugestif, yaitu teks yang tujuannya agar pembaca mendapatkan hikmah dari sebuah cerita.

Struktur Umum

Orientasi                : set adegan dan memperkenalkan para peserta.

Komplikasi            : krisis, konflik, atau masalah muncul.

Resolusi                 : krisis atau masalah tersebut teratasi, untuk lebih baik atau lebih buruk.

Re-Orientasi          : Opsional (tidak harus).

Ciri-ciri Redaksi Narrative Text

Jika kamu mendapat tugas untuk membuat sebuah tulisan dengan genre narrative text, maka ciri-ciri di bawah ini bisa dijadikan pedoman:

  • Fokus pada satu tokoh atau pelaku dan biasanya individual sehingga biasanya menggunakan kata ganti seperti “I, we, she, he”.
  • Paling sering menggunakan past tense baik itu simple past tense, past continuous, maupun bentuk past tense lainnya.
  • Terkadang menggunakan dialog untuk mengajak pembaca berimajinasi sehingga ceritanya terlihat lebih jelas dan nyata.
  • Karena berurutan (kronologis), maka biasanya juga menggunakan kata sambung (conjunction) agar cerita terlihat runtut atau urut.

Contoh Narrative Text dan Penjelasannya.

Cinderella.

Once upon a time, there was a beautiful young girl named Cinderella. He lived with his step mother and two sisters. They were arrogant and bad tempered. They treated Cinderella very badly. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest job in the house, such as scrubbing the floor, cleaning the pot and pan and preparing food for the family. Her step sisters, on the other hand, did not work on the house. Their mother gave them many pretty dresses to wear.

One day, a king invited all girls in his kingdom to attend a ball in his palace. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Cinderella could not stop crying after they left.

“Why are you crying, Cinderella?” the voice asked.

She looked up and saw a fairy standing beside her. Then Cinderella told her why she was crying. Well the fairy said, “you’ve been such a cheerful, hardworking, uncomplaining girl that I will see that you go to the ball.” The fairy turned a pumpkin into a coach and mice into a smooth two coach man and footman then tapped Cinderella’s dress with her wand, and it became a beautiful ball gown.

Then he gave her a pair of pretty glass shoes. Now, Cinderella, she said, “you have to leave the ball before midnight”. Then he drove away a wonderful coach. Cinderella had a marvelous time either. She danced again and again with the prince. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve, she ran toward the door as fast as he could do. In her hurry, one of her glass shoes left behind.

A few days later, the prince declared that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass shoe. Cinderella’s stepsisters tried on it but it was too small for them, no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. In the end, the king’s page let Cinderella try the shoe. She stretched his legs and slipped the shoe on the page. It fitted perfectly. Finally, she was ushered into a magnificent palace and height. The prince were glad to see her again. They married and lived happily ever after.

Penjelasan:

  • Paragraf pertama berisi Orientation, yaitu pengenalan tokoh-tokoh yang ada pada dongeng Cinderella.
  • Paragraf kedua berisi Complication, yaitu masalah muncul ketika Cinderella tidak boleh pergi ke pesta dansa (ball).
  • Paragraf ketiga berisi Resolution, yaitu masalah terpecahkan ketika seorang peri menolongnya.
  • Paragraf terakhir, berisi Re-Orientation, yaitu akhir cerita yang bahagia dimana akhirnya Cinderella menikah dengan pangeran.

Pengertian, Tujuan, Ciri Narrative Text dan Contohnya

 

Jack and the beanstalk

Once upon a time there was a poor widow who had an only son named Jack. They were so poor that they didn’t have anything except a cow. When the cow had grown too old, his mother sent Jack to the market to sell it. On the way to the market, Jack met a butcher who had some beautiful beans in his hand. The butcher told the boy that the beans were of great value and persuaded the silly fad to sell the cow for the beans.

Jack brought them happily. When he told his mother about this, his mother became so angry that she threw the beans out of the window.

When Jack woke up in the morning, he felt the sun shining into a part of his room but all the rest was quite dark and shady.

So he jumped to the window. What did he see? The beanstalk grew up quite close past Jack’s window. He opened the window and jumped to the beanstalk which ran up just like a big ladder.

He climbed … and climbed till at last he reached the sky. While looking around, he saw a very huge castle. He was very amazed.

Then Jack walked along the path leading to the castle. There was a big tall woman on the doorstep. Jack greeted her and asked for the giantess mercy to give him breakfast, because he felt very hungry. Although the giantess grumbled at first, finally she gave Jack a hunk of bread and cheese and a jug of milk.

Jack hadn’t finished when the whole house, began to tremble with the noise of someone’s coming. “Oh! It’s my husband!” cried the giantess. “What on earth shall I do?”

Hastily the giantess opened a very big cupboard and hid Jack there.

Why do the Sun and the Moon live in the sky?

 

(A Nigerian Folktale )

Here is the story. A long time ago, when the world was new, the Sun married the Moon and they lived as happily as can be. They lived in a little cottage near the Ocean.

You know what? One day, the Sun and the Moon invited the Ocean to their house for a visit. The Ocean liked it so much. He wanted to stay in a little cottage. The Sun and the Moon liked the Ocean and hoped the cottage would be big enough for all three of them.

So the Sun and the Moon invited the Ocean to stay with them. What happened then? Then came the Ocean with all his friends; the whales, the fish, the tortoises, the crabs and all the creatures that live in the sea.

Oh my….. The water rose higher and higher in the cottage. Soon, there was no more room for the Sun and the Moon. Oh, how poor they were. They rose up into the sky where they have lived ever since. Well, that’s the story.