100208-Report text : Definition, Purposes, Generic Structures, Language Features

Report text adalah sebuah teks yang menghadirkan informasi tentang suatu hal secara apa adanya. Genre atau jenis text ini memang ada kesamaan dengan descriptive text yaitu, baik descriptive text dan report text sama sama memberikan gambaran secara langsung tentang seseorang atau suatu benda. Perbedaannya adalah jika kita berbicara tentang benda atau seseorang secara spesifik seperti warna, style, nama, dsb, itu disebut descriptive. Dan apabila kita berbicara tentang benda atau seseorang secara umum yang meliputi bagian-bagiannya, kekuatannya, fungsinya, atau sifat umum lain dari benda atau seseorang itu disebut report.

Definition of Report text

Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analyses. (Report adalah sebuah teks yang menghadirkan informasi tentang suatu hal secara apa adanya. Teks ini adalah sebagai hasil dari observasi dan analisa secara sistematis.)

Generic Structure of Report text

  • General Clasification ; Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general (Menyatakan klasifikasi aspek umum hal; hewan, tempat umum, tanaman, dll yang akan dibahas secara umum).
  • Description : tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors. (Pada bagian ini biasanya memberikan gambaran fenomena-fenomena yang terjadi; baik bagian-bagiannya, sifat-sifatnya, kebiasaannya, ataupun tingkah lakunya. Intinya adalah penjabaran dari klasifikasi yang disajikan dengan ilmiah.)

Purpose of Report text

Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries of region, culture, transportation, and so on.

The Characteristics / Language Feature of Report text:

  • Use of general nouns, eg hunting dogs, rather than particular nouns, eg our dog;
  • Use of relating verbs to describe features, eg Molecules are tiny particles;
  • Some use of action verbs when describing behaviour, eg Emus cannot fly;
  • Use of timeless present tense to indicate usualness, eg Tropical cyclones always begin over the sea;
  • Use of technical terms, eg Isobars are lines drawn on a weather map;
  • Use of paragraphs with topic sentences to organise bundles of information; repeated naming of the topic as the beginning focus of the clause.

Keterangan :

  • General nouns, maksudnya adalah, suatu benda (baik itu hidup atau mati) yang bersifat umum. Coba bandingkan : Hunting dogs >< My dog. Hunting dogs bersifat umum; sedangkan my dog bersifat khusus. – Relating verbs, dalam grammar disebut juga dengan linking verbs. Seperti to be [is, am, are: present], seem, look, taste dan lain sebagainya. – Timeless present tense adalah salah satu penanda waktu dalam simple present seperti “often, usually, always” dan lain-lain. – Technical terms, maksudnya adalah istilah-istilah yang meliputi teks report tersebut. Misalnya tentang “music” maka, istilah-istilah musik harus ada. Read the text below, and see the translation.

Thanksgiving Day

Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is a celebration of harvest, thankfulness for peace, and the attempt of Native Americans. It is usually celebrated in late autumn.

(Thanksgiving atau Hari Thanksgiving adalah perayaan panen, syukur untuk perdamaian, dan upaya penduduk asli Amerika. Hal ini biasanya dirayakan di akhir musim gugur)

In the past, Thanksgiving was celebrated for their rich harvest in New England. In North America, however, it was originally held to thank God for their survival in the new land which was not easy for them. However, in Canada, it had been celebrated as in New England. Thanksgiving now is celebrated in United States of America and in Canada. Thanksgiving festivals are held every fourth Thursday of November in the U.S and on the second Monday of October in Canada. It is usually celebrated in four to five days in the North America and for three days in Canada.

(Di masa lalu, Thanksgiving dirayakan untuk panen kaya mereka di New England. Namun di Amerika Utara, pada awalnya diadakan untuk bersyukur kepada Tuhan untuk kelangsungan hidup mereka di tanah baru yang tidak mudah bagi mereka. Namun, di Kanada, itu telah dirayakan sebagaimana di New England. Thanksgiving sekarang dirayakan di Amerika Serikat dan di Kanada. Festival Thanksgiving diadakan setiap Kamis keempat bulan November di Amerika Serikat dan pada hari Senin kedua bulan Oktober di Kanada. Hal ini biasanya dirayakan dalam empat sampai lima hari di Amerika Utara dan selama tiga hari di Kanada.)

It is celebrated through families and friends gathering to eat and give good luck. Turkey is the main dish in the thanksgiving dinner. Thanksgiving parades are also usually held. In Thanksgiving homes are decorated with wreaths, fresh and dried flowers. Lamps are lighted to brighten the environment. Tables are decorated with best china and antique silver dishes to mark the occasion.

(Hal ini dirayakan seluruh keluarga dan teman-teman yang berkumpul untuk makan dan memberikan keberuntungan. Ayam jago adalah hidangan utama di makan malam Thanksgiving. Parade Thanksgiving juga biasanya diadakan. Dalam Thanksgiving rumah yang dihiasi dengan karangan bunga, bunga segar dan kering. Lampu dinyalakan untuk mencerahkan lingkungan. Tabel dihiasi dengan piring perak antik dan yang terbaik dari China untuk menandai peristiwa.)

Note :

Thanksgiving : Syukuran atau Selamatan

Pigeon

Pigeon refers to all birds of the family Columbidae and order Columbiformes. They consist of 310 species. Some people may also know them as “Doves”. There is no clear distinction between the use of the word “pigeons” and “doves” until today. But generally, the word “Pigeons” is used to address the species known as the Rock Dove, while the word “Doves” is used to address a pigeon that is white.

Pigeons exhibit various size and color based on their species. The smallest species may have the size of 15 cm and weight 30 g, while the largest species can grow up to 75 cm with the body weight of 2 kg. Some of their color are: pale gray, white, brown, reddish and black. Most of them have two black bars on their wings. They have a small head with short beak. Their body is compact with two large and muscular wings and two short legs on it.

Pigeons can be found almost in any region in the world. They have been domesticated since 10.000 years ago. they have been used by humans for several purposes such as courier to deliver short written messages, sacred symbols in a wedding ceremony, entertainment in a magic show and also as a racing birds. Some species are also edible and they are served as food in some places.

Honey Bee

Honey bee is the name given to some species of bees who have the ability to produce honey and beeswax. Of all 20.000 species of bees in the world, there are only seven species which belong to the group of honey bee. They are insect and all of them belong to the genus Apis. One of the most famous honey bee is the Western Honey Bee.

There are three castes of honey bee and each of them has their own job or function. The first one is the Queen. The queen is a female honey bee with the job to lay eggs and to be the mother of all bees in the colony. There is only one queen in a colony of bees. An exclusive food called “royal jelly” is what makes a female honey bee grow larger than other honey bees and became the queen. The second one is the Workers. The workers are all female honey bees in a colony except the queen. They can consist of as much as 60.000 bees in single colony. Some of their duties are: feeding the brood, collecting food, receiving nectar, cleaning the hive, guard duty, producing honey and also producing beeswax. The third one is the Drones. Drones are all male bees in a colony. The drones have one job only and that is to fertilize the queen during the mating process and will soon be dead after that.

The largest species of bee in the world is the Indonesian resin bee who can grow up to the size of 39 millimeters and the smallest species is the Dwarf sting-less bees with the size of 2 millimeters. They have the typical body of an insect with three sections: the head, thorax and abdomen. They have two large eyes, two antenna, a mouth and a long proboscis on their head. They use the proboscis to suck up nectar from a flower which later be kept on their hind legs. There are three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings on their thorax. There are nine segments on their abdomen and the last three segments is modified into the sting.

http://britishcourse.com/report-text-definition-purposes-generic-structures-language-features.php

 

100208-Tiger

The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest species among the Felidae and classified in the genus Panthera. It is most recognizable for its dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. It is an apex predator, primarily preying on ungulates such as deer and bovids. It is territorial and generally a solitary but social predator, requiring large contiguous areas of habitat, which support its requirements for prey and rearing of its offspring. Tiger cubs stay with their mother for about two years, before they become independent and leave their mother’s home range to establish their own.

The tiger once ranged widely from Eastern Anatolia Region in the west to the Amur River basin, and in the south from the foothills of the Himalayas to Bali in the Sunda islands. Since the early 20th century, tiger populations have lost at least 93% of their historic range and have been extirpated in Western and Central Asia, from the islands of Java and Bali, and in large areas of Southeast and South Asia and China. Today’s tiger range is fragmented, stretching from Siberian temperate forests to subtropical and tropical forests on the Indian subcontinent and Sumatra. The tiger is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986. As of 2015, the global wild tiger population was estimated to number between 3,062 and 3,948 mature individuals, down from around 100,000 at the start of the 20th century, with most remaining populations occurring in small pockets isolated from each other. Major reasons for population decline include habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation and poaching. This, coupled with the fact that it lives in some of the more densely populated places on Earth, has caused significant conflicts with humans.

The tiger is among the most recognisable and popular of the world’s charismatic megafauna. It featured prominently in ancient mythology and folklore and continues to be depicted in modern films and literature, appearing on many flags, coats of arms and as mascots for sporting teams. The tiger is the national animal of India, Bangladesh, Malaysia and South Korea.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiger

100208-The Elephants

The elephants are the large mammals forming the family Elephantidae in the order Proboscidea. Three species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), the African forest elephant (L. cyclotis), and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Elephants are scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Elephantidae is the only surviving family of the order Proboscidea; other, now extinct, members of the order include deinotheres, gomphotheres, mammoths, and mastodons.

All elephants have several distinctive features, the most notable of which is a long trunk (also called a proboscis), used for many purposes, particularly breathing, lifting water, and grasping objects. Their incisors grow into tusks, which can serve as weapons and as tools for moving objects and digging. Elephants’ large ear flaps help to control their body temperature. Their pillar-like legs can carry their great weight. African elephants have larger ears and concave backs while Asian elephants have smaller ears and convex or level backs.

Elephants are herbivorous and can be found in different habitats including savannahs, forests, deserts, and marshes. They prefer to stay near water. They are considered to be a keystone species due to their impact on their environments. Other animals tend to keep their distance from elephants while predators, such as lions, tigers, hyenas, and any wild dogs, usually target only young elephants (or “calves”). Elephants have a fission–fusion society in which multiple family groups come together to socialise. Females (“cows”) tend to live in family groups, which can consist of one female with her calves or several related females with offspring. The groups are led by an individual known as the matriarch, often the oldest cow.

Males (“bulls”) leave their family groups when they reach puberty and may live alone or with other males. Adult bulls mostly interact with family groups when looking for a mate and enter a state of increased testosterone and aggression known as musth, which helps them gain dominance and reproductive success. Calves are the centre of attention in their family groups and rely on their mothers for as long as three years. Elephants can live up to 70 years in the wild. They communicate by touch, sight, smell, and sound; elephants use infrasound, and seismic communication over long distances. Elephant intelligence has been compared with that of primates and cetaceans. They appear to have self-awareness and show empathy for dying or dead individuals of their kind.

African elephants are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) while the Asian elephant is classed as endangered. One of the biggest threats to elephant populations is the ivory trade, as the animals are poached for their ivory tusks. Other threats to wild elephants include habitat destruction and conflicts with local people. Elephants are used as working animals in Asia. In the past, they were used in war; today, they are often controversially put on display in zoos, or exploited for entertainment in circuses. Elephants are highly recognisable and have been featured in art, folklore, religion, literature, and popular culture.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elephant